politics in India

India is my country and all Indians are my brothers and sisters.
I love my country and I am proud of its rich and varied heritage.
I shall always strive to be worthy of it.
I shall give my parents, teachers and all elders, respect, and treat everyone with courtesy.
To my country and my people, I pledge my devotion.
In their well being and prosperity alone, lies my happiness.

in our childhood we used to read this pledge in our primary level books. but have you ever wonder that in our national pledge word nation is not used instead they prefer word country. Have you ever wonder what is the difference between nation and country? we usually use these words interchangeably but in terms of polities there is subtle difference in both terms.

nation:A nation is a body of people who share a real or imagined common history, culture, language or ethnic origin

country:a country is a geographical region. The term is often applied to a political division or the territory of a state.

and since India is country of unity in diversity it is important to know what is binding this country since years. unfortunately people of India lacks nationalism and we keep on fighting as me marathi, we hindi, we tamils, and many more.

to keep this all  under control India has adopted federal republic government system and which is abide to the constitution of India.

i think every citizen of India must be aware of  the guiding values of their government, What is logic behind all policies formed by Indian government? Well to know about such questions, you must know the philosophy of Indian constitution. and what better than preamble  of constitution can describe it,



We the people of India having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure all its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY, of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship

EQUALITY of status and of opportunities; and to promote them among all

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation;


“A just society is that society in which ascending scene of reverence and descending sense of contempt is dissolved into the creation of a compassionate society.”

Let`s have a review of above mentioned jargon political terms, if you know it then you may
to conclusion. but i will recommend you to read it, as they may differ in general terms n specific political science language which is required to understand the constitutions philosophy.


Sovereignty is derived from Latin word ‘superanus’ meaning supreme. It means every full-fledged or independent state there is an ultimate authority, an authority from which there is no appeal. This authority is supreme in both international and in external matter. Internally no individual or group of individuals has the legal right to act contrary to decision of Sovereign power. In external matters too, the sovereign state is supreme.

Technically in terms of political science its: “the supreme power over citizens and subjects, unrestrained by law”


Socialism refers to various theories of economic organization advocating public or direct worker ownership and administration of the means of production and allocation of resources, and a society characterized by equal access to resources for all individuals with an egalitarian method of compensation. Contrary to popular belief, socialism is not a political system; it is an economic system distinct from capitalism. the philosophy can be further extended as communism


basic idea of secularism goes like this, secularism may assert the right to be free from religious rule and teachings, and freedom from the government imposition of religion upon the people, within a state that is neutral on matters of belief, and gives no state privileges or subsidies to religions.

The Indian model of secularism  focuses on equality in intra religious and inter religious domination. Indian secularism opposes discrimination based on caste, untouchability and women oppression in societies.

Democracy: it is a type of state as well as an order of society. In democracy every man has value. It enshrine the truth that government does not exist for its own sake but for the enrichment of personality. When a state is democratic it has to value following things,


Human history provides many examples of people and communities which have been dominated, or enslaved or exploited by more powerful groups. But it also provides us with inspiring examples of heroic struggles against such domination. The struggle for freedom represents the desire of people to be in control of their own lives and destinations and to have the opportunities  to express themselves freely through their choices and activities.


The concept of equality implies that all people, as human being are entailed to some rights and opportunities to develop their skills and talents, and to pursue their goals and ambitions. This means that in society people may differ with regard to their choice and preferences.  It is not lack of equality of status or wealth or privileges that are significant but the inequality in people’s access to such basic goods, as education, health care, self housing that make for an unequal and unjust society.

The concept is really very broad n has 3 dimensions as political equality, social equality, economic equality.

  1. Political equality includes, equal citizenship, right to vote, freedom of expression, freedom of belief etc. it also includes equal legal right set by judiciary and constitution.                                               
  2. Social equality which precedes equality of opportunities since in India still many communities don’t have rights to express themselves and getting the social goods, equality of opportunities can only bring then social equality. The words are self explaining “social equality” so I am not digging it more.
  3. Economical equality governs so that at least it will give support to those who have talent and determination the chance to improve their condition. Intension is simple that economy should never be the barrier for progress to any individual.

The last part of equality consists of feminism which is political doctrine of equal rights n opportunities from man and women. i.e. the gender should not be the barrier to progress of any individual.

These values are set by revolutionist from all around world and  are accepted by all “secular, democratic, republic” countries as standard values in the democracy.


In simplest terms republic means people have an impact on its government. The state (country) is not ruled by monarch i.e. some king.

Although the values were set in the constitution, implementing in a diverging society like India was a herculean task n for that the power was distributed in various states and central government. This division of power is called as federalization. Sharing of power  is really a crucial factor which has kept all states together else India could have been dissolved into many countries having various traditions, cultures n all.


every democratic federal republic country has to follow the above mention principle in their constitution and hence governance. and hence in America the African- American(blacks) got reservation, in many European countries, reservation is provided for minorities of other country. (i.e. in Poland Germans are minority and in German dutch and french are minority). for more details on European politics you must know their 1000 years history of battles based on ethnicity. and since this sharing of power we see this today`s strong European union. i wonder when Indian people will learn something from these countries.

coming back to Indian constitution, the creators of constitution have considered society at that time and constitutions of contemporary democratic nations n framed constitution for our nation, the government has to follow these rules and depending of fulfillment of these issues the constitution is amended to incorporate changes n update it.

In last 60 years India has shown great progress from all the traditional values and  societies today are in far better way but still there are many prejudiced societies which deny equal access for dalits, tribes, womens  etc. you may read this article for more information about it.

For all these people protection is governed by Indian constitution since at the time of independence, considering above mention points. To change this reservation structure amendment in constitution is mandatory. And for this amendment 2 things are required,

  1. Special majority from both loksabha and rajya sabha
  2. More than half of state government must agree for this change :Article 368

without these all supports this particular article of reservation cannot be amended. unfortunately the ill treatment is still there in some part of our country and thus reformation has became a difficult task for government, causing troubles to others.

That’s all I know till now,  I will keep updating this as I will come across more facts…

I hope this will clear doubts  about Indian government`s policies.(i mean as per standard rules!!)

Basically this all should have been taught to us during our primary level education, but hell… we keep studying same things thrice in history n no touch to these most important aspect of governance n politics. And as add-on and extreme unfortunate, most of  the teachers teaching civics don’t even know about these things and they teach…….. What????              And if you ask them about it they all have same, n very simple answer as we engineers, these things were never mentioned in our syllabus!!!! Neither they ask questions in paper …..

and they never bother upgrading their knowledge just like teachers of engineering. 🙂

Fortunately in new revised printed books of 5-10 the preamble + pledge is  printed on consecutive page (starting from academic year 2006-07). But without explaining the values , it is useless n student will never bother reading it.

So till education system became totally knowledge based making people to think, nothing is gonna change. If you really want to do something for your country create awareness, it’s high time to wake up and start acting, now u will know reason of my previous posts.

Thanks a lot for reading with patience.


political theory by eddy asirvatham

Indian constitution by D.D.  basu

NCERT books for political science

And national news papers. (the hindu, times of india)

One thought on “politics in India

  1. Hey Sanyal,
    to the ppl,by the ppl and for the ppl is definition of democracy but this is incomplete definition.Next part is “Discipline is mother of democracy”.Every politician forget this as per convenience……


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